This is a writing assignment on applying the three ethical theories we’re learni

This is a writing assignment on applying the three ethical theories we’re learning this Unit—utilitarianism, Kantian ethics, and virtue ethics—to moral decisions.
This assignment contains two sections. Section 1 is about applying utilitarianism and Kantian ethics. There are 8 questions in Section 1 (6.25 points per question). Section 2 is about applying virtue ethics. There are 4 questions in Section 2 (6.25 points per question).
Section 1: Applying Utilitarianism and Kantian Ethics
Scenario #1
Someone with an ax comes to the door of Helen’s house with the intention of murdering Helen’s sister, Nae, who is hiding inside. When Helen answers the door, the person with the ax asks whether Nae is inside. Helen lies and says she hasn’t seen Nae today.
1. Is Helen’s behavior morally right or wrong according to utilitarianism? Be sure to fully explain the factors utilitarians consider, and explain how a utilitarian reaches their moral judgment.
2. Is Helen’s behavior morally right or wrong according to Kant’s ethics? Be sure to fully explain the factors Kantians consider, and explain how a Kantian reaches their moral judgment.
Scenario #2
Arlyn promises to help her friend Chante move on Saturday. Later, Arlyn’s cousins demand she take them to an amusement park on Saturday. Arlyn knows her cousins will be really mad if she doesn’t take them, and Chante will be sort of chill about skipping, so Arlyn breaks her promise.
3. Is Aryln’s behavior morally right or wrong according to utilitarianism? Be sure to fully explain the factors utilitarians consider, and explain how a utilitarian reaches their moral judgment.
4. Is Arlyn’s behavior morally right or wrong according to Kant’s ethics? Be sure to fully explain the factors Kantians consider, and explain how a Kantian reaches their moral judgment.
Scenario #3
Mrs. Lois Bishop learned she was pregnant with twin fetuses at the same time she learned that one of the twin fetuses had Down syndrome. “There’s no question,” she said, “I want to have an abortion. I had the tests done in the first place because I want to have a healthy child. I knew there was a chance that I would have to have an abortion, so I’m prepared for it.”
Her obstetrician, Dr. Georgia Savano, nodded. “I understand that,” she said. “You are certainly within your rights to ask for an abortion, and I can arrange for you to have one. But there is another possibility, an experimental one, that you might want to consider as an option.”
The possibility consisted of the destruction of the fetus with Down syndrome while continuing the pregnancy for the other fetus. In the end, this is what Mrs. Bishop chose. A long, thin needle was inserted through Mrs. Bishop’s abdomen and into the heart of the fetus, and a solution was injected into the fetal heart. Although there was a risk Mrs. Bishop would have a miscarriage, she did not. The surviving fetus continued to develop. Mrs. Bishop had a healthy delivery.
Dr. Savano was criticized by some physicians as “misusing medicine,” but she rejects such charges. Mrs. Bishop also has no regrets, for if the procedure had not been performed, she would have been forced to have an abortion and destroy both twin fetuses..
5. Is Lois’s behavior morally right or wrong according to utilitarianism? Be sure to fully explain the factors utilitarians consider, and explain how a utilitarian reaches their moral judgment.
6. Is Lois’s behavior morally right or wrong according to Kant’s ethics? Be sure to fully explain the factors Kantians consider, and explain how a Kantian reaches their moral judgment.
Scenario #4
Medical research scientists at a drug company have developed a promising new drug, Carlax, that is highly effective in preventing the spread of several sexually transmitted infections (STI’s) among mice. They are set to test the drug on humans, but they initially don’t receive enough human volunteers to participate in their study. The company the scientists works for threatens to stop funding them if they don’t receive enough participants. The scientists need three more volunteers for the study to run.
One of the scientists, Laura, proposes the following: “Why don’t we just tell people who have an STI that Carlax will cure them of their STI? This will motivate them to participate.”
Team member Jen responds, “But it’s not true. Carlax doesn’t cure mice who already have an STI; it just prevents mice who have an STI from spreading it to their sexual partners. Plus, we need a control group, so some of participants won’t get Carlax. They’ll get a placebo instead. Volunteers should be told all this before agreeing to partake in the study.”
“But if Carlax works, our research could greatly prevent the spread of STI’s.” Laura says. “Isn’t it OK to bend the truth for such an important cause?”
Laura ultimately gets three more participants by lying, telling them they’re definitely being treated. Carlax winds up being highly effective in preventing the spread of STI’s, and is eventually prescribed across the globe, vastly lowering the rate of STI’s worldwide.
7. Is Laura’s behavior morally right or wrong according to utilitarianism? Be sure to fully explain the factors utilitarians consider, and explain how a utilitarian reaches their moral judgment.
8. Is Laura’s behavior morally right or wrong according to Kant’s ethics? Be sure to fully explain the factors Kantians consider, and explain how a Kantian reaches their moral judgment.
Section 2: Virtue Ethics
Using the one-page article “The Virtue Ethics Guide to Improving Character” (available in the Resources section of this Unit 7), what specific steps can you start taking today to improving your moral character traits? Many moral traits we’ve discussed are below:
generosity
courage
honesty
dependability
compassion
kindness
charity
thoughtfulness
loyalty
fairness
sympathy
sincerity
9. Choose one moral trait you feel you’d like to work on, and explain why you want to work on cultivating this moral trait.
10. List events or times in your life that consistently trigger the bad habits related to this trait. (see section III of “The Virtue Ethics Guide to Improving Character”)
11. What is a more reasonable, moral action or thought process you could do instead to replace the way you typically respond? (see section III of “The Virtue Ethics Guide to Improving Character”)
12. What aids can you set up today to help begin the process of replacing your less moral habits with more reasonable, moral behavior? (see section IV of “The Virtue Ethics Guide to Improving Character”)

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