Review Section Two of this module’s assigned textbook reading and expound upon t

Review Section Two of this module’s assigned textbook reading and expound upon the idea that teaching is both an art and a science. Discuss the art and science implications associated with decision making, selecting appropriate content, student motivation, and reflection. Find two scholarly resources to support your claims.
The Challenge of Reflective Teaching and Decision Making
1-8Teaching as Art and Science
As you begin your journey in teaching, you will be exposed to many different ideas, values, and theoretical models. In this section, we add a series of perspectives to help you make instructional decisions. However, John Hattie’s (2012) seminal research summed it up succinctly: teachers are the single most important aspect of school-based learning.
Key Ideas
Professionalism and Diversity
Recognize different cultures in your classroom
Respect all who show up in your classes
Be cognizant of similarities and differences in groups
Offer an enriched curriculum
Professional-level teaching is both an art and a science (see Eisner 2003). Like an artist, a good teacher makes decisions from both a technical and a creative perspective. Great artists display a mastery of technical skills—painting, glass blowing, sculpting—involving the science behind how these techniques work. They also know when and in what way to apply those technical skills. They make decisions. That part is the art. Similarly, teachers develop their science by using carefully planned, fine-tuned lessons that reflect an understanding of many different teaching techniques. They apply each technique skillfully to gain the desired intellectual, social, affective, or kinesthetic result. They develop artistry by being aware of what they are doing and of how what they do affects their learners. They are constantly aware that the choices they make affect the intellectual, attitudinal, and psychomotor skills of their students. Above all, they make decisions.
Research-Based Teaching Methods
The instructional techniques that are presented in this book have an extensive body of research supporting them. You will be consumers of research and may even contribute to that literature. As you progress through your teacher education program, you may encounter advocates of some golden technique. Ask for empirically derived data, that is, longitudinal experimental and control group results that have been replicated. The educational fads that abound usually have no such data. Understanding and interpreting research is part of teaching’s science. Using that knowledge appropriately and making the right decisions comprise the artistry.
One last point on this topic: Robert Marzano (2007) provides research-based evidence that teachers who have a strong professional pedagogical competence also have students who show greater academic achievement (see also Hattie 2012). Yes, there is a very powerful link between your instructional knowledge and how well your students will do in the school setting. Knowledge is power!
National Board for Professional Teaching Standards (NBPTS)
There is yet one more hurdle to gain top-level professional recognition. The NBPTS came into being in 1989 as a consequence of the Carnegie Task Force on Teaching as a Profession. The NBPTS (2010) has established both content and instructional standards for the profession, which are based on the following five “core propositions.”
Teachers are committed to students and their learning.
Teachers know the subjects they teach and how to teach those subjects to students.
Teachers are responsible for managing and monitoring student learning.
Teachers think systematically about their practice and learn from experience.
Teachers are members of learning communities.
Five core NBPTS propositions guide teacher education.
Obtaining NBPTS certification is a rigorous endeavor, and most states add a handsome yearly stipend to teachers’ salaries for those who pass muster. At least one research study shows that teachers in grades 3 through 6 in Arizona who were NBPTS-certified tended to be more effective in terms of student achievement (Vandevoort, Amrein-Beardsley, & Berliner 2004).
Decisions and judgment put the art in teaching.
Adding to the picture of values is the “Code of Ethics” sponsored by the Association of American Educators (2010). Their four basic principles are summarized in the following box.
Ethical conduct toward students
Ethical conduct toward practices and performance
Ethical conduct toward professional colleagues
Ethical conduct toward parents and community

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